Corticosteroids are a type of hormone that naturally occurs in the body’s adrenal glands, but they can also be synthetically produced in a lab. Both can be used medicinally to treat a number of health issues, including arthritis and inflammation caused by soft tissue injuries.
Corticosteroids are divided into two chemical groups:
- Glucocorticoids influence metabolism, immunological response, cell formation and turnover, and blood vessel constriction. Glucocorticoids can aid in the reduction of inflammation and the suppression of hypersensitive white blood cell responses to infection and other dangers. Blood pressure and skin cell production are also affected by corticosteroids.
- Cortisol (hydrocortisone) is a glucocorticoid that occurs naturally in the body. Prednisone is a synthetic or human-made glucocorticoid that is often used for a number of health concerns, including asthma and allergies.
Mineralocorticoids keep the kidneys’ water and electrolyte balance in check. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid that occurs naturally. A synthetic form of the hormone is fludrocortisone (Florinef).
These two classes of steroids-usa are used to treat a variety of health issues, including allergies (skin reactions, respiratory reactions, and anaphylaxis), endocrine problems, gastrointestinal issues, rheumatological diseases, certain autoimmune diseases like lupus, eye problems, injury inflammation, and more.
Pharmaceutical corticosteroids are available in a variety of forms, including:
- Sprays and inhalers
- IV Oral or Injectables (pills)
- Topical issues (creams and ointments)
Corticosteroids in Orthopedics
Anti-inflammatory characteristics of injectable corticosteroids are commonly employed in orthopedics. An orthopedist may recommend one or more injections to the joint or injury site to reduce swelling, inflammation, or pain in some severe disorders, such as arthritis or a bulging disc.
In general, this course of treatment is administered with caution; excessive or frequent use of injectable corticosteroids might result in side effects (see “Risks” below).
Injections of cortisol or hydrocortisone may be beneficial for the following conditions:
- Bursitis. The bursa, or sac, that acts as a cushion between bones and soft tissue can become irritating, inflamed, or swollen at times. As a result, you may experience pain and reduced range of motion. Swelling and inflammation can be reduced to relieve discomfort and restore movement. Treatment options include aspiration of accumulated fluid followed by corticosteroid injection.
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that affects the joints (OA). One of the most common uses of corticosteroids in orthopedics is the treatment of OA. Pain and inflammation in the joints are frequent when cartilage wears away. The injection of a corticosteroid into the afflicted area may provide temporary relief from these symptoms. The treatment’s purpose is to reduce discomfort and restore function. Depending on the severity of the sickness, pain alleviation may last several weeks or months. Because corticosteroids have a lot of side effects, persons with OA should see their doctors about other, long-term symptom management options.
Back pain in the lower back Spinal stenosis (a compression of the gaps in the spine), pinched nerves, and ruptured discs can all benefit from injectable corticosteroids. For long-term pain and symptom management, further forms of therapy or surgery may be recommended, especially if the symptoms are caused by disc degeneration caused by osteoporosis or OA. (Spinal fusion surgery may be recommended in some circumstances.)
Neck ache (cervical radiculopathy). A pinched nerve in the neck vertebrae can cause discomfort to radiate across the neck, shoulder, arm, and even hands. A compression of the vertebrae, a bulging disc, or a ruptured disc can all produce this pinching. While the damage heals, a corticosteroid injection can help reduce swelling. Other forms of therapy or surgery may be worth discussing with a doctor if disc degeneration is caused by osteoporosis or OA.
Tendonitis. This inflammatory illness can cause discomfort and edema in the tendons and soft tissues as a result of overuse or recurrent strain. Tendonitis affects the elbow (tennis elbow), shoulders, knees, and wrists in particular. Injections can help with severe or incapacitating pain.
Corticosteroid treatment for inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases has a number of distinct advantages. These are some of them:
- Pain alleviation that is almost immediate
- Inflammation is reduced quickly.
- In the case of a localized injury, there can sometimes a permanent cure.
- A high rate of success
When symptoms are incapacitating — for example, if your Achilles tendonitis makes it impossible to walk or your tennis elbow makes it impossible to write, type, use the phone, or hold a fork — a cortisone injection may provide relief from an intolerable level of pain and swelling for long enough to keep you comfortable while your body heals.
There is, however, a disadvantage. This type of drug can’t be used indefinitely to treat chronic or recurring pain and swelling. A second dose may not be necessary if symptoms reappear after a few weeks. Orthopedists commonly limit the use of these injectables to 3 to 4 doses per year to minimize harmful side effects.
Risks of Corticosteroids
Though corticosteroids in small doses can help relieve pain and inflammation, they do come with hazards.
They’re harmful if taken too frequently or in big amounts for the same reason they work so well in reducing pain and inflammation.
Corticosteroids stop immune system “overreactions” that cause pain and swelling by suppressing the immune system and the production of white blood cells. However, keep in mind that inflammation and histamine reactions to allergens are also natural defense mechanisms against infections and other immune system assaults. Even pain has a purpose: it urges you to take it easy and relax.
Suppressing the body’s natural ability to accomplish what it’s supposed to do can do more harm. Remember that corticosteroids are not intended to be used as a long-term treatment for tissue injuries.
The following are some of the potential side effects of treatment:
- Blood sugar levels that are temporarily increased, especially in diabetic people
- Infection or hemorrhage at the injection site are both possible complications.
- Palpitations, hot flashes, flushing, and minor mood swings are all symptoms of menopause.
- A brief increase in discomfort at the injection site is known as a post-injection flare.
- Skin thinning or discolouration near the injection site
- Atrophy of subcutaneous fat in a specific area
- Tendon deterioration
- Avascular necrosis (bone death) is a very unusual condition.
Steroid use for a long time might cause cataracts, high blood pressure, stomach ulcers, and osteoporosis, among other things. Some side effects, including as weight gain, acne, and diabetes, are common with long-term oral steroid use, but not with periodic injectable therapies.
The good news is that injecting steroids only once or twice a year is unlikely to cause major negative effects. Even so, it’s a good idea to chat to your doctor about any pre-existing illnesses you may have and how the injection might affect them before having a shot.
The Benefits and Drawbacks of Corticosteroids
Injectable corticosteroids can help reduce inflammation and discomfort in inflammatory disorders like arthritis, muscular strains, tendonitis, bursitis, and pinched nerves. They have a high effectiveness rate and can provide relief faster than NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines).
This type of therapy, however, is not without hazards. Though pain alleviation is sometimes lasting, the symptoms may return after a few weeks or months. It’s generally not a good idea to get more than 3 to 4 injections per year due to the hazards of long-term steroid use.